In American ideology, the individual reigns supreme.

 (1) ________  The historian Frederick Jackson Turner proposed that the westward expansion and frontier experience of the nineteenth century was

  a major force in shaping this aspect of our national character.

He wrote,

“That restless, nervous energy; that dominant individualism, working for good and for evil, and withal that buoyancy and exuberance which comes with freedom—these are traits of the frontier."

(2)_________  Indeed, from a very early age, selfhood and independence are stressed.

 

Children learn they must stand on their own two feet in a competitive world where self-reliance and self-realization are the name of the game.

The expression “self-made" man or woman expresses that American ideal perfectly.

It is not surprising then that in comparison to many other cultures, we are more tolerant of individual differences, idiosyncracies, and non-conformity.

(3) _______  Although attitudes towards conformity have not been fixed historically and have changed over time,

in general, Americans seem to dread the idea of being, acting, and looking just like their neighbors.

Indeed, Americans have ambivalent feelings about neighbors. This ambivalence reflects the tension we feel over our loyalties to group and to self and which of the two takes precedence.

In other cultures, the group clearly takes precedence. However, in the United States, we draw boundaries around individuals and circumscribe their “space."

(4) _________  It is a concept that many foreigners find odd, even offensive. But again, it is the individual that is valued over the group, whether that group is a family, corporation, or community.

 

loyalty  n.
1. 忠誠;忠心[U][(+to)]
2. 忠誠的行為[P]

precedence n.[U]
1. 居前;領先
2. 優先;優先權[(+over)]
3. 地位先後,級別高低

circumscribe  vt.
1. 在周圍畫線;限制
2. 為...下定義;為...劃界線
3. (幾何)使外切

offensive a.
1. 冒犯的,唐突的
2. 討厭的,令人作嘔的[(+to)]
3. 進攻的,進攻性的,攻勢的[Z][B]
4. 攻方的[Z][B]
n.
1. 進攻,攻勢[C]
2. 進攻勢態[the S]

 

odd  a.
1. 奇特的,古怪的
2. 單隻的,不成對的;零散的[B]
3. 奇數的,單數的
4. 臨時的,不固定的;非經常的[B]
5. 【口】(用在數字後)有零數的,...以上的
6. 剩餘的;額外的

even  a.
1. 平的,平坦的,平滑的[(+with)]
2. 一致的;同樣的;齊的[(+with)]
3. 對等的;均等的,相等的
4. 【數】偶數的[Z]
5. 均勻的;平穩的
6. 恰好的,整整的
ad.
1. (加強語氣)甚至;連
2. (用於比較級前)甚至更,還
3. 實際上;甚至可以說
vt.
1. 使平坦;弄平
2. 使相等


1.
A.  We conceptualize this space as privacy which protects the rights of both individuals and groups.

B.  In fact, we train our children to define and distinguish themselves from their peers, to be self-reliant and autonomous.

C.  Historically, our culture has championed no single group, but it has championed the idea of the individual man or woman.

D.  In a society as pluralistic as our own, where there is little consensus on what constitutes “the greater good" and where diverse traditions,

     world views, and moral systems compete, it is inevitable that conflicts arise.

ideology  n.
1. 思想體系;思想意識
2. 觀念形態,意識形態
3. 空論,空想

individual  a.
1. 個人的,個體的[B]
2. 個別的,單獨的[B]
3. 特有的,獨特的
n.[C]
1. 個人;個體
2. 【口】(常與形容詞連用)...人

reign  n.
1. 統治;支配[U]
2. 在位期間,統治時期[C]
vi.
1. 君臨;統治[(+over)]
2. 支配;盛行,佔優勢

supreme  a.
1. 最高的,至上的
2. 最大的,極度的;最重要的

 

Frederick Jackson Turner

1893年,美國歷史學者菲德烈.傑克森.特納(Frederick Jackson Turner)指出,疆界不只是一個地方,也代表一個過程,在這個過程中,變動的邊界迫使人與制度調適與改變。

特納 (Frederick Jackson Turner, 1861-1932) ,其對進步史學貢獻,是使美國史學史由科學史學過渡到進步史學。特納保留科學史所要求的方法,以進行對美國歷史重新詮釋,僅管特納史學的理論性不強,但 是,重要的是在於特納提出,要求一個能包含所有一切的史學:如強調歷史的有用性,以群眾史取代過去的事件史,尋求塑造歷史的偉大力量,加重生活中的經濟面 向,強調無止盡且普遍的變動,認知世界史以做為指標。

特納所建構的地理環境主義 (geographical environmentalism) 是類似於達爾文的進化論。藉由地理空間 (space) 的無時間性以說明其對人類生活的持續影響。空間是一個非常具體的存在實體,美國自己的民主淵源在此情形下被塑造,將是一種無止盡的權利,因此有關美國的 「歷史持續性」問題被解決,特納對提供予新史學的乃是連續性 (continuity) 的史觀。

同時,這個「空間」(即邊疆)也僅有美國獨有。因此,美國創造其特別的民主與群眾,維持其歷史的獨特性 (exceptionality) 。在這個持續緩慢的變動所造就的是永久 (permanency) 的來源:民主。美國的邊疆空間提供一個欲脫離歐洲專制統治的地點,隨著不斷的空間移動,美國也從狩獵與農業的經濟進化至工業,如此突顯早期西部群眾的貢 獻,也相對脫離科學史一昧強調的政治史與政治人物的貢獻。再者,特納也嘗試建立因果關係:美國空間與美國民主的形成。

然而,邊疆的開拓總有止盡,因此其突顯的問題似乎又是:那接下來的美國未來,難道因此而停頓發展?雖然在特納的邊疆論中顯現美國的發展是走向愈來愈 美好的社會,並且特納也為美國民主建立一個發自本土的民主發展,一個完全不必訴諸歐洲淵源的民主,使進步史學能更有利的談論「現在」與「未來」。

propose  vt.
1. 提議,建議,提出[+v-ing][+(that)]
2. 提(名),推薦
3. 計劃,打算[+to-v]
4. 求(婚)
5. 提議祝(酒),提議為...乾杯
vi.
1. 提出建議
2. 求婚[(+to)]

westward  a.
1. 向西的
ad.
1. 向西
n.
1. 西方;西部

 

expansion  n.
1. 擴展;擴張;膨脹[U]
2. 擴大物[C]

 

frontier  n.[C]
1. 國境,邊境;邊疆[(+between/with)]
2. 【美】(靠近未開發地帶的)邊遠地區[the S]
3. (探索活動的)新領域;未完全開拓的領域[P1][(+of)]

 

shape  n.
1. 形狀;樣子,外形[C][U]
2. (表現)形式;體現,具體化[U][C]
3. 【口】情況,狀態[U]
4. 模糊的人影;幽靈[C]
5. 種類[S]
6. 模型,模子[C]
vt.
1. 使成形;塑造,製作[(+into/from/out of)]
2. 形成
3. 使符合;使適合[(+to)]
4. 使合身[H][(+to)]
5. 計劃;設計;想出;使具體化
6. 引導
vi.
1. 【口】成形;成型;形成[(+up/into)]
2. 成長,發展
3. 【罕】發生

aspect  n.
1. 方面,觀點[C][(+of)]
2. 方向,方位[C]
3. 外觀,樣子[C][U]
4. 【文】(動詞的)體,時態,時間[C][U]
5. (建築物等)朝某方向的一面[C]

restless  a.
1. 焦躁不安的,煩躁的
2. 受打擾的;得不到休息的
3. 靜不下來的,永不安寧的
4. 求變的,得不到滿足的

nervous  a.
1. 神經質的;緊張不安的[(+of/about)]
2. 神經的[Z][B]
3. 神經興奮的;有力的,剛健的
4. 【古】肌肉發達的,結實的

 

energy n.
1. 活力,幹勁[U]
2. 精力,能力[U][P]
3. 【物】能,能量[U]

dominant  a.
1. 佔優勢的,支配的,統治的
2. 高聳的;佔首位的
3. 【生】(遺傳性狀)優勢的,顯性的
4. 【音】全階第五音的
n.
1. 【音】全階第五音[C]
2. 【生】顯性;顯性狀(或基因);優勢種[U][C]

individualism  n.
1. 個人主義
2. 強調個人獨特性;個性
3. 利己主義

withal  ad.
1. 而且,加之,同樣
prep.
1. 用,用以

  1. adv. (副詞 adverb)
    1. 而且,又
  2. 2. 另一方面;儘管這樣

buoyance  n.
1. 浮力,浮性;彈性
2. 活潑,輕快;開朗
3. 【商】漲風;上漲行情;增長趨勢

exuberance  n.
1. 豐富;充溢;繁茂
2. 生氣勃勃的行動

trait  n.
1. 特徵,特點,特性[C]
2. 一點,少許,微量[S][(+of)]

selfhood  n.
1. 自我;個性
2. 利己主義

self-realization

自我實現

self-made
  1. adj. (形容詞 adjective)
    1. 自己做的;靠自己奮鬥成功的,白手起家的,自力更生的
    a self-made man
    靠自己奮鬥成功的人.

comparison  n.
1. 比較,對照;類似[C][U][(+between/with)]
2. 比喻[C][U]
3. 【文】(形容詞或副詞的)比較[U][C]

 

nonconformity  n.
1. 不順從一般公認信念習慣;不墨守成規;不一致
2. (N-)不信奉國教

  1. n. (名詞 noun)
    1. 不一致,不符合,矛盾
  2. 2. 不墨守成規,不遵照準則[規範]
  3. 3. 不信奉國教
  4. 4. 非國教徒 總稱
  5. 5. 非國教徒教義[儀式]

conformity  n.[U]
1. 遵從;順從[(+to/with)]
2. 相似;一致;符合[(+to/with)]
3. 【英】【史】信奉國教

 

dread  vt.
1. 懼怕;擔心[+to-v][+v-ing][+(that)]
vi.
1. 懼怕;擔心
n.
1. 畏懼,恐怖;擔心[U][S1][(+of)]
2. 可怕的東西(或人)[C]
3. 【俚】拉斯特法瑞信徒(Rastafarian)
a.
1. 令人畏懼的,非常可怕的[B]
2. 嚴重的;重要的

ambivalent  a.
1. 【心】(對同一人或事物)有矛盾情緒的

 

2  A.  This ideology has profoundly altered the way we think about the rights of both individuals and groups.

    B.  We conceptualize this space as privacy which protects the individual from the outside and from others.

    C.  In fact, we train our children to define and distinguish themselves from their peers, to be self-reliant and autonomous.

    D.  Historically, our culture has championed no single group, but it has championed the idea of the individual man or woman.

profoundly  ad.
1. 深深地;深切地;深刻地
2. 極度地

peer  n.
1. one of the same rank; an equal before the law
同等的人;法律上同等的人
2. also, any equal or associate
同輩;同僚
3. a nobleman
貴族
4. a member of the British House of Lords
英國上議院議員

self-reliant 

n. (名詞 noun)
1. 特立獨行

 

adj. (形容詞 adj
      獨斷獨行的

autonomous  a.
1. 自治的;自治權的;自主的
2. 【生】獨立存在的
3. 【植】自發的

idiosyncrasy  n.
1. (個人的)氣質,習性
2. 表現手法;風格


3  A. Perhaps it must be so in a culture as diverse as ours, a culture made up of so many subcultures.
   

    B. In fact, we train our children to define and distinguish themselves from their peers, to be self-reliant and autonomous.
   

    C. Historically, our culture has championed no single group, but it has championed the idea of the individual man or woman.
   

    D. In a society as pluralistic as our own, where there is little consensus on what constitutes “the greater good" and where diverse traditions, world views, and moral systems compete, it is 

        inevitable that conflicts arise.

diverse  a.
1. 不同的,互異的
2. 多種多樣的;多變化的



4  A.Perhaps it must be so in a culture as diverse as ours, a culture made up of so many subcultures.

    B.This ideology has profoundly altered the way we think about the rights of both individuals and groups.

    C.We conceptualize this space as privacy which protects the individual from the outside and from others.

    D.In a society as pluralistic as our own, where there is little consensus on what constitutes “the greater good" and where diverse traditions, world views, and moral systems compete, it is inevitable that conflicts arise.

 

conceptualize  vt.
1. 使概念化
vi.
1. 概念化

pluralistic  a.
1. 兼職的
2. 多元論的

consensus  n.
1. 一致
2. 合意
3. 輿論

 

constitute  vt.
1. 構成,組成[W]
2. 設立(機構等);制定(法律等)
3. 指定,任命,選派...的[O1]

moral  a.
1. 道德(上)的[Z][B]
2. 講道德的,品性端正的
3. 教訓的
4. 精神上的,心理上的;道義上的
n.[C]
1. 道德上的教訓;寓意
2. 道德;品行;風紀[P]
3. 道德規範;修身之道;倫理學[P][J]

 

inevitable  a.[Z]
1. 不可避免的;必然(發生)的[R]
2. 【口】照例必有的;老一套的[B]

arise  vi.
1. 升起,上升
2. 產生,出現,形成[(+from/out of)]
3. 【舊】起立
4. 復活


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